Health Effects of Electro-Magnetic Fields
from Science News, Vol. 156, No. 20
November 13, 1999, p. 316
Two previous studies had found that electro-magnetic fields (EMFs) reduce
pain and swelling. EMFs also have that effect in a new trial headed by
orthopedic surgeon Roy K. Aaron. Presumably, he says, it does it "by
changing the chemistry of the joint." Studies by his team and others
indicate that these fields can increase a joint's production of natural
anti-inflammatory agents, such as transforming growth factor-beta. Not
surprisingly, Aaron notes, medical supply companies are now developing
products, such as a glove with coils, to deliver EMFs to arthritis-savaged
joints. Softer tissues also respond to these fields. For instance, Arthur
A. Pilla, a biophysicist at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New
York City, observes that many people with bone breaks experience significant
pain in muscles around their injuries. Shortly after EMF therapy begins,
however, that pain disappears. Though the mechanism remains elusive,
Pilla says, the treatment seems to affect swelling, which can cause pain.
If this proves true, he says, EMFs might benefit people with carpal tunnel
syndrome, where swelling in the wrist pinches nerves going to the fingers.
Indeed, that's a possibility that Betty F. Sisken of the University of
Kentucky College of Medicine in Lexington would like to explore. Currently,
she's probing EMFs' direct influence on nerves. In their initial studies,
she and her colleagues crushed a nerve in the hind leg of rats and then
treated the animals with EMFs for 4 hours daily.
James T. Ryaby, vice president of OrthoLogic, a medical device company
in Tempe, Arizona, has been using what he calls combined fields - oscillating
magnetic fields superimposed on a static magnetic field. They appear
to spur bone growth more quickly than the older type of pulsed EMFs,
Ryaby says. More tantalizing, says Ryaby, are the data from a just completed
study with female rats suggesting that the combined fields can reverse
the kind of bone loss women experience after menopause. After removing
the rodents' ovaries to simulate a postmenopausal state, Ryaby's team
watched the animals quickly lose bone. Six weeks later, some of the rats
began receiving combined-field therapy for 30 minutes a day. Within a
little more than a month, he says, the treated animals were regaining
lost bone while their untreated counterparts continued to lose it. What's
more, the combined-field devices require just a small percentage of the
power used by typical pulsed EMF generators. In Bioelectrochemistry and
Bioenergetics last February, Pilla and his colleagues reported finding
that pulsed EMFs appear to increase the binding of ions to receptors
on the surface of cells. For instance, they've witnessed enhanced binding
of calcium to the regulatory molecule called calmodulin. This difference
may prove important in stimulation of bone-cell growth by EMFs, Pilla
says. EMFs can also increase bone cells' production of insulin-like growth
factor II, according to test-tube experiments by Ryaby of OrthoLogic
and his colleagues. This hormone-like molecule plays a key role in bone
growth and may be regulated by calcium binding to calmodulin.
Targeting a key enzyme in cell growth:
a novel therapy for cancer
Abstract --- The enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RR) controls the synthesis
of DNA precursors and thus plays a pivotal role in cell growth. Since
the free-radical-containing active-site of this enzyme can be disabled
by a lone electron, low-level direct electric current should have an
inhibitory effect on RR and, thus, on uncontrolled cell proliferation.
This hypothesis is strongly supported by the results of several cancer
electrotherapy studies reported over the years.
Cancer is uncontrolled cell growth. For a cell to divide, it must replicate
its DNA strand. The building blocks of this strand are in short supply
in a healthy, resting cell. However, the building blocks of a related
molecule RNA are always in great abundance since RNA is needed for
many cellular functions. When a cell is ready to divide, an enzyme
called ribonucleotide reductase (RR) converts building blocks of RNA
into those of DNA. The enzyme RR is, thus, pivotal for cell growth.
Not surprisingly, the activity of this enzyme is tightly linked, much
more than that of any other enzyme, to neoplastic transformation and
A whole class of anti-cancer chemotherapeutic drugs, hydroxy-urea being
best known, is aimed at blocking the enzyme RR (2). However, utility
of such drugs is limited since inhibition of the enzymic activity is
only partial and undesirable side-effects are many.
A novel way of arresting the activity of this pivotal enzyme in cell
growth is suggested by the fact that the active site of RR contains
a stable tyrosyl free radical which is essential for its activity (13).
Such free radicals can be neutralized/destroyed by free-floating electrons
-- easily available in the form of direct electric current. Thus DC
electrotherapy should result in inhibition of RR and cessation of malignant
cell proliferation. Low-level surface DC electrotherapy would act selectively
on cancerous growth since the concentration of the target enzyme RR
is exponentially higher in cancerous cells, as compared to healthy
quiescent cells (1). Metastasized cancer should also be treatable by
direct current electrotherapy since even in the metastatic state, irrespective
of the organ micro-environment, the biochemical mechanism of cell division
involving the enzyme RR, remains the same.
The connection between low-level DC electrotherapy and deactivation of
enzyme RR is being proposed for the first time. However, use of low-level
direct electric currents to treat tumor -- without any clear understanding
of the underlying mechanism -- has been reported in scientific literature
about ten times during the last four decades (4-13). Three of these
papers - the last one in 1985 - reported very encouraging results.
For example, in some experiments, there was total regression in 60%
of mice (4), an average of 88% tumor necrosis [destruction] in hamsters
(5), and 98% reduction in tumor mass, also in hamsters (7). (It is
strange that none of these studies had any proper follow-ups.) The
outcome of other studies was less positive -- almost certainly due
to poor choice of parameters.
Following is a summary of these ten reports. (The electrode near the
tumor is termed as 'active', the other one being called 'passive'.)
1. Humphrey et al, 1959 (4)
ACTIVE Electrode: Copper or Zinc plate with saline-solution-saturated
sponge on unbroken skin over tumor.
PASSIVE Electrode: Same, over ventral area.
BEST RESULTS (Total regression in 60% mice): at cathode, with 3 milliamperes
at 3 V, 4.8 hours per day for 21 days.
2. Schauble et al, 1977 (5)
ACTIVE Electrode: Silicone covered steel needle - exposed tip implanted.
PASSIVE Electrode: Wire-mesh with electrode paste and saline-dampened
sponge - over chest skin.
BEST RESULTS (88% Necrosis): at positive electrode with 3 mA at 1.5 V,
1 hour per day for 4 days.
NOTE: Necrosis was also observed when active electrode was made negative.
3. Habal 1980 (6)
Poor results with 0.5 µA at 1.5 V, for 12 days continuous, using
an implanted device.
4. David et al, 1985 (7)
ACTIVE Electrode: Silicone covered Steel or Platinum-Iridium (70:30)
needle - exposed tip implanted.
PASSIVE Electrode: Aluminum foil plate with conducting paste - over shaved
BEST RESULTS (98% Reduction in tumor mass): at either electrode, with
2.4 mA at less than 3 V, for 1 hour per day for 5 days.
5. Marino and Morris et al, 1986 (8)
Both Electrodes ACTIVE: Insulated Platinum - except for the implanted
tips - at foci of tumor.
BEST RESULTS (Total regression in 43% of primary tumors): with 2 mA at
about 3 V, 1 hour per day for 3 intermittent days.
6. Morris and Marino et al, 1992 (9)
Both Electrodes ACTIVE: Platinum needles - implanted in tumor.
BEST RESULTS (Reduction in tumor mass without improved survival): with
20 mA at 8-10 V, for 15 minutes once.
7. Miklavki et al, 1993 (10)
ACTIVE Electrode: Platinum-Iridium (90:10), Gold, Silver or Titanium
needle tip implanted.
PASSIVE Electrode: Same, placed subcutaneously the whole length, near
BEST RESULTS (About 70% necrosis): at cathode, with 0.6 mA at unspecified
volts, for 1 hour once.
NOTE: "Field" electrotherapy, by placing both electrodes subcutaneously
for their entire length, on either side of tumor, also produced similar
8. Griffin et al, 1994 (11)
ACTIVE Electrode: Gold needle - implanted.
PASSIVE Electrode: Copper plate with conducting gel - beneath the animal.
BEST RESULTS (Regression proportional to charge passed): at anode, with
1-4 mA at 1-16 V, for 30-90 min. once.
9. Taylor et al, 1994 (12)
ACTIVE Electrode: 4 parallel brass plates, vertically mounted, in a specially
designed oesophageal tube.
PASSIVE Electrode: Large plate with saline-soaked pad on human patient's
BEST RESULTS (Oesophagus tumor of one patient regressed completely at
the primary site): with 20 mA at 7 V, at each of four anodes, for 1 hour.
Three treatments over 4+1/2 month period.
10. Miklavki et al, 1994 (13)
ACTIVE/PASSIVE Electrodes: Gold needles, placed subcutaneously the whole
length, on either side of tumor.
BEST RESULTS (Tumor growth slowed by a factor of 3): with 1.0 mA at unspecified
volts, for 1 hour, applied once.
NOTE: No correlation was observed between the amount of deposited electrode
material (gold) and anti-tumor effect.
Discussion and conclusion
Both positive and negative results of the published low-level electrotherapy
studies can be adequately explained by the posited enzyme-mediated
mechanism. Various aspects of these reports is being discussed in these
Positioning & Polarity of Electrodes
If deactivation of the enzyme RR is the dominant mechanism underlying
the efficacy of electrotherapy, then it should not matter whether electrodes
are implanted or on the surface -- as long as the tumor is in the path
of the current. Only in study #1 (4) were both electrodes placed on
unbroken skin, and it reported one of the better results. Beside being
non-invasive, surface electrodes also minimize electrochemistry and
its attendant toxicity. Similar reasoning would suggest that the polarity
of the electrodes is inconsequential. Almost all electrotherapy studies
where beneficial results were obtained, confirm this. Results of "field" electrotherapy
experiments, where electrodes were implanted on either side of tumor
(10,13) also show that polarity of electrodes is immaterial, and that
electrode-electrolyte interactions are of little significance.
Electrode Metal Dissolution
If the primary mechanism of electrotherapy involves inhibition of enzyme
RR, then electrode metal deposition should have little or no influence
on the beneficial outcome. Study 10 (13) has clearly shown that this
is so. The fact that different electrode materials produce very similar
results, further indicates that electrodes act merely as electron conductors.
Thus, virtually all the observed facts are in accord with the proposed
mechanism involving the deactivation of the free-radical-containing
active site of RR. Furthermore, a recent experiment has shown that
the concentration of enzyme RR decreases and cell growth ceases when
direct electric current is passed through the tumor (15). The proposed
hypothesis, thus, is on the verge of being proved.
This novel way of arresting cell growth can be the foundation of a cancer
therapy that is non-toxic, non-invasive, site-specific, low-cost and
easy to administer. The current cancer treatments are called "slash,
burn & poison" by oncologists themselves, and are mostly empirical
in nature. The gentle electrotherapy, on the other hand, would be deductively
scientific with potential to cure most cancers.
1. Weber, G. (1983) Biochemical strategy of cancer cells and the design
of chemotherapy. Cancer Res. 43, 3466-3492.
2. Cory, J.G., and Cory, A.H. (1989) Inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate
reductase activity. International encyclopedia of pharmacology and therapeutics.
New York: Pergamon Press, pp 1-16.
3. Graslund, A., Ehrenberg, A., and Thelander, L. (1982) Characterization
of the free-radical of mammalian ribonucleotide reductase. J. Biol. Chem.
4. Humphrey, C.E., and Seal, E.H. (1959) Biophysical approach toward
tumor regression in mice. Science 130, 388-390.
5. Schauble, Habal, and Gullick, (1977) Inhibition of experimental tumor
growth in hamsters by small direct currents. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
6. Habal, M.B. (1980) Effect of applied d.c. currents on experimental
tumor growth in rats. J. Biomed. Mat. Res. 14, 789-801.
7. David, Absolom, Smith, Gams, and Herbert, (1985) Effect of low level
direct current on in vivo tumor growth in hamsters. Cancer Res. 45, 5625-5631.
8. Marino, A.A., Morris, D., and Arnold, T. (1986) Electric treatment
of lewis lung carcinoma in mice. J. Surg. Res. 41, 198-201.
9. Morris, D.M., Marino, A.A., and Gonzalez, E. (1992) Electrochemical
modification of tumor growth in mice. J. Surg. Res. 53, 306-309.
10. Miklavki, D., Sersa, G., Kryzanowski, M., Novakovi, S., Bobanovi,
Golouh, and Vodovnik, (1993) Tumor treatment by direct electric current
- tumor temperature and pH, electrode material and configuration. Bioelectro.
B. 30, 209-220.
11. Griffin, D.T., Dodd, N.J.F., Moore, J.V., Pullan, B.R., and Taylor,
(1994) The effects of low-level direct current therapy on a preclinical
mammary carcinoma: tumor regression and systemic biochemical sequelae.
Br. J. Cancer 69, 875-878.
12. Taylor, T.V., Engler, P., Pullan, B.R., and Holt, S. (1994) Ablation
of neoplasia by direct current. Br. J. Cancer 70, 342-345.
13. Miklavki, D., Fajgelj, A., and Sersa, G. (1994) Tumor treatment by
direct electric current: electrode material deposition. Bioelectro. B.
14. Nordenstrom, B.E.W. (1985) Electrochemical treatment of cancer. Ann.
Radiol., 43, 84-87.
15. Yen, Y., and Chou, C.K., City of Hope Medical Center, Duarte, CA.,
USA (personal communication).
Editor's Comments: The referenced studies were able to acheive 3ma of
electrical current with low voltage (~3v) because the electrodes were
directly opposite tumors on small mice. On larger animals it is certain
that more voltage will be necessary to acheive 3ma current because more
living tissue between electrodes presents more resistance. The formula
for determining current (I=V/R) shows that with more resistance, more
voltage is necessary to acheive the same current. Therefore, our electrifier
uses five 9v batteries for a total of 45 volts which may be necessary
to acheive 3ma current. The main control on the unit adjusts the amount
of resistance between the batteries and the output, and the output current
will trigger a red light to come on when 3ma is acheived. It is the current
which does the work, not the voltage.
BIOCOMPATIBLE ELECTRIC CURRENT ATTENUATES HIV-1 INFECTIVITY
William D. Lyman, Irwin R. Merkatz
William C. Hatch and Steven C. Kaali
Departments of Pathology,
And Obstetrics & Gyneclogy
Albert Einstein College of Medicine,
1300 Morris Park Ave. Bronx, N.Y. 10461
In this report, we present the results of double-blinded studies on the
use of direct electric current to alter the infectivity of HIV-1 for
susceptible cells in vitro. These experimental currents were equal
to 3.85 and 7.7µA/mm2 current densities respectively. The reduction
of infectivity was dependent upon the total electric charge (µA
x min) passing through the chamber to which the virus was exposed.
Viral infectivity was determined by two independent measures: a syncytium-formation
assay which can be used to quantify the production of infectious particles;
and a reverse transcriptase assay which is an index of viral protein
Using this index of HIV-1 infectivity, it was determined that exposing
virus to direct electric current suppressed its capacity to induce
the formation of syncytia. Figure 1 shows a representative experiment
and Table 2 shows the Croup data for 3 separate experiments. As can
be noted in Figure 1, a statistically significant (p<0.001) reduction
in syncytium number was absented and this reduction was dependent upon
the current applied to the viral isolate. At three different viral
dilutions, there were analogous results in that a total charge of 200µA
x min (25µA for 8 minutes) reduced the number of syncytia from
50% to 65% while a charge of 3O0µA x min (50µA for 6 minutes,
75µA for 4 minutes or 100µA for 3 minutes) resulted in
Reverse transcriptase assay:
The direct electric currents to which HIV-l was exposed also reduced
reverse transcriptase activity. Five separate experiments were conducted
and a representative experiment is shown in Figure 2 and the data are
included in Table 3. As can be seen in Figure 2, there was a significant
decrease in the amount of reverse transcriptase activity after exposure
of the virus to either 50A for 3 or 6 minutes. An equivalent reduction
in reverse transcriptase activity was also noted with exposure to 100µA
for 3 minutes and almost ablation of reverse transcriptase activity
was seen with exposure of the viral isolate to 100µA for 6 minutes.
The group data (Table 3) show that after exposure to 50µA for
6 minutes, there was a 44% reduction in activity and treatment of virus
with 100µA for 6 minutes resulted in a 94% reduction. An analysis
of variance indicates that the decrease in reverse transcriptase activity
was statistically significant (p<0.0001).
The results reported here demonstrate that HIV-1 treated with direct
electric currents from 50 to 100µA has a significantly reduced
infectivity for susceptible cells in vitro. This reduction of infectivity
correlates with the total electric charge passing through the chamber.
The therapeutic potential of electric current may reside in its ability
to lower the viral titer to subclinical significance or in its incorporation
into a strategy analogous to that of other therapies in which repeated
cycles of treatment eventually achieve remission or cure. It may be
also feasible to treat AIDS patients with direct electric current using
either extracorporeal [out of body] systems or self contained indwelling
Syncytium Formation at 1:160 dilution
0/6 25/8 50/6 75/4 100/3 exposure (µA/minute)
128 45 9 7 2 # of syncytium formed
Five aliquots of the RF strain of HIV-1 were exposed to direct electric
current. At all the dilutions tested, electrical treatment of the virus
aliquots resulted in a significant decrease in syncytium formation.
Six aliquots of the RF strain of HIV-1 were exposed to different amounts
of current for 3 or 6 minutes. A significant decrease (p<0.005) from
0 current levels (0/3 and 0/6) in reverse transcriptase activity is noted.
However, the decrease is more significant (p<0.0001) when virus is
exposed to 100µA for 6 minutes.
Human CD4 immune blood cells were exposed to various amounts of electric
current for various amounts of time and then mixed with HIV-1 virus.
The resultant decrease in CD4 infection by the virus (resulting in
cell enlargement [syncytium] and reverse transcriptase production)
is listed in the two tables under the column headings indicating how
much electric current in microamperes (µA= millionths of an ampere)
was applied to the virus for how many minutes. 100µA applied
for 3 minutes to the virus produced only approximately 2% of the number
of enlarged cells (syncytium) as was produced after 6 minutes without
electrical treatment of the virus. 100µA applied for 6 minutes
to the virus produced only 6% of the reverse transcriptase activity
as was produced after 6 minutes without electrical treatment of the
virus. 100µA is equal to 7.7µA per square millimeter (mm2)
of the surface of the electrodes delivering the electric current to
the virus. Explanation of tests: Human CD4 immune cells, when exposed
to HIV-1 virus, normally become infected with the virus and then enlarged
as the virus reproduces itself (with the coerced help of the blood
cell) within the CD4 cell. So anything that can reduce the viral infectivity
(the ability of the virus to infect a cell) can be tested in the laboratory
to see if less enlarged cells (syncytium) are produced which will show
the degree of success of the anti-viral. Reverse transcriptase is an
enzyme used by retroviruses to form a complementary DNA sequence (cDNA)
from their RNA. The resulting DNA is then inserted into the chromosome
of the host cell. A test showing how much is being produced is a way
to quantify approximately how much viral reproduction has happened
as a result of viral infection of the CD4 cells. So a test result showing
reduced reverse transcriptase activity is one that shows how successful
an anti-viral is at reducing the infectivity of a virus.
U.S. PATENT 5,139,684
By Steven Kaali and Peter Schwolsky
Filed 11-16-1990, approved 8-18-1992
Electrically conductive methods and systems for treatment of blood and
other body fluids and/or synthetic fluids with electric forces
...applying... no biologically damaging electric potentials... to the
electrically conductive electrode segments whereby electric field forces
are produced... that induce biologically compatible current flow through
the blood... to attenuate bacteria, virus, parasites, fungus contained
in the blood... to render the bacteria, virus, parasites, fungus ineffective
while not impairing the biological usefulness of the fluids"
...to attenuate such contaminants to the extent that bacteria, virus,
or fungus, or parasites contained in the blood... are rendered ineffective
to infect or affect healthy cells."
Best Mode of Practicing Invention:
For example, treatment of AIDS virus in media at 100 microamperes for
3 minutes has been observed to substantially attenuate (render ineffective)
the AIDS virus."
In conclusion, these experiments... indicate at a statistically significant
level that direct electric current... can attenuate the ability of HIV-1
to infect normally healthy cells which are susceptible to the HIV-1 AIDS
virus." "Both of these assays (syncytia & reverse transcriptase)
are widely used as reproducible measures of viral infection and can be
used to determine if alternations in viral infectivity as a product of
this electrical treatment can be detected." "...it is believed
obvious that other modifications and variations of the invention will
be suggested to those skilled in the art in the light of the above teachings." "...it
is possible that certain virus may be attenuated (or attenuated at a
faster rate) if they are exposed to a greater electric current magnitude
of the order of 500 microamperes for shorter time periods."
The patent's 1st laboratory test used electrically treated (at 100µA/3min
which is 7.7µA per square millimeter for 3 minutes) HIV-l virus
mixed with human T cells (immune cells which the HIV likes to infect)
and showed 99% less infected & enlarged T cells (syncytia) by viruses
after 4 days compared to T cells mixed with HIV-1 not electrically treated.
The patents 2nd lab test used electrically treated (l00µA/6min)
HIV-1 mixed with blood T cells and showed 72% less virus associated enzymes
(reverse transcriptase produced as a result of viral reproduction) after
4 days, compared to T cells mixed with HIV-1 not treated. The patent
stated; "it is possible that certain virus may be attenuated (or
attenuated at a faster rate) if they are exposed to a greater electric
current magnitude of the order of 500 microamperes for shorter time periods." 500
microamperes (500µA) applied to the experiments electrodes with
a surface area of 13.3mm2 yields a current of 38.5µA per square
millimeter (38.5µA/mm2). In approximation of this idea, my blood
electrifier was estimated to produce 17 to 34µA/mm2 (for 4 - 8
mm2 cross sectional arterial area). This high current is necessary due
to the short (but repeated) treatment durations of blood when using an
electrode on each wrist. Due to the short treatment durations, as the
blood passes through the main arteries (~ 1 minute), it is necessary
to do treatments of up to 1 - 2 hours.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition
June 2, 2000
Kinetics of Microbial Inactivation for Alternative Food Processing Technologies
Oscillating Magnetic Fields
Scope of Deliverables
This section reports the effects of magnetic fields on microbial populations.
1. Definition, Description and Application
Static (SMF) and oscillating (OMF) magnetic fields have been explored
for their potential as microbial inactivation methods... an OMF is
applied in the form of constant amplitude or decaying amplitude sinusoidal
waves. OMF applied in the form of pulses reverse the charge for each
pulse, and the intensity of each pulse decreases with time to about
10% of the initial intensity (Pothakamury and others 1993). Preservation
of foods with OMF involves sealing food in a plastic bag and subjecting
it to 1 to 100 pulses in an OMF with a frequency between 5 to 500 kHz
at temperatures in the range of 0 to 50 degrees Celsius for a total
exposure time ranging from 25 to 100 milliseconds. OMF of intensity
of 5 to 50 tesla (T) and frequency of 5 to 500 kHz (5000 - 500,000)
was applied and reduced the number of microorganisms by at least 2-log
cycles (1/100th ). OMF of this intensity can be generated using: (1)
superconducting coils; (2) coils which produce DC fields or (3) coils
energized by the discharge of energy stored in a capacitor (Gersdof
and others 1983). Inhibition or stimulation of the growth of microorganisms
exposed to magnetic fields may be a result of the magnetic fields themselves
or the induced electric fields. The latter is measured in terms of
induced electric field strength and induced current density.
2. Inactivation of Microorganisms
Table 1. Effect of magnetic fields in microorganisms.
field frequency magnetic micro-
strength of pulse field organism Effect Reference
12 tesla 6000 OMF Streptococcus Cell population reduced Moore (1985)
(1 pulse) Themophilus from 25,000 cells/ml to
in milk 970
7.5 tesla 8500 OMF Mold spores Population reduced from Hofmann (1985)
(1 pulse) 3,000 spores/ml to 1
Hofmann (1985) reported on the inactivation of microorganisms with OMF
in milk, yogurt, orange juice and bread roll dough. According to Hofmann
(1985) only 1 pulse of OMF was adequate to reduce the bacterial population
to between 1% and .1%.
Hofmann G.A. 1985. Deactivation of microorganisms by an oscillating magnetic
field. U.S. Patent 4,524,079.
Moore, R.L. 1979. Biological effects of magnetic fields Studies with
microorganisms. Can. J. Microbiol., 25:1145-1151
Gersdorf, R., deBoer, F.R., Wolfrat, J.C., Muller, F.A., Roeland, L.
W. 1983. The high magnetic facility of the University of Amsterdam, high
field magnetism. Proceedings International Symposium on High Field Magnetism.
Osaka, Japan. 277-287
Pothkamury, U.R., Barbosa-Canovas, G.V., and Swanson, B.G. (1993). Magnetic-field
inactivation of microorganisms and generation of biological changes.
Food Technol. 47(12):8593
This papers test results revealing effectiveness against bacteria and
fungi/mold, and patent 4,524,079, is what inspired me to create my own
version of OMF generator. The OMF Pulser I used to sell was an oscillating
magnetic field generator (with OMF of decaying amplitude as Hofmann and
Moore used) with a magnetic field strength of around 6200 gauss and a
frequency of around 5000 cycles per second (5 kHz). Its electromagnetic
coil is energized by the discharge of energy stored in a capacitor. The
experiences of myself and others with the OMF Pulser are in agreement
with the scientific test results of Moore and Hofmann in that it is effective
against bacteria and mold (fungus) although our test medium was human
tissue instead of food. Their test results showed a 96% reduction of
streptococcus bacteria (at 6kHz/12T) and a 99.9% reduction of mold spores
U.S. Patent 4,524,079
Inventor: Gunter A. Hofmann
Date: June 18, 1985
Deactivation of Microorganisms by an Oscillating Magnetic Field
Material... such as food products... is disposed within a magnetic coil
and subjected to one or more pulses of an oscillating magnetic field
having an intensity of between 2 and about 100 Tesla and a frequency
of between 5 and about 500 kHz. A single pulse of the magnetic field
generally decreases the microorganism population by at least about
two orders of magnitude. [1/100th]
Detailed Description of a Preferred Embodiment
The magnetic field in the coil is produced upon discharge of a capacitor.
The capacitor is charged from a source, and when a switch is closed...
an oscillating current is generated between the plates of the capacitor.
The oscillating current in turn generates an oscillating magnetic field
which is concentrated within the region bounded by the coil... Immediately
subsequent to closing the switch, an intense magnetic field is produced
by current flowing in one direction. As the current changes direction,
the magnetic field changes polarity. The oscillating current and, hence,
the oscillating magnetic field rapidly deteriorates, with the field
intensity after about ten oscillations dropping to a few percent of
the original intensity. Herein, magnetic field intensities refer to
the intensity of the initial peaks... Herein pulse duration is considered
to be 10 oscillations, after which the substantially decayed field
has a negligible effect.
A sample of pasteurized milk is... inoculated with Streptococcus thermophilus
at a concentration of 25,000 bacterium/cm3... The milk is subjected
to 1 pulse of a 12 Tesla, 6kHz, oscillating magnetic field... An aliquot
of the milk is plated on a standard plate. The colony count of the
plate shows a concentration of about 970 Streptococcus thermophilus
350g of plain 4% fat yogurt is opened, inoculated with Saccharomyces
at a concentration of 3,500 bacteria/cm3 and stirred thoroughly. The
container full of inoculated yogurt is placed centrally within the
coil described above and subjected to 10 pulses of a 40 Tesla, 416
kHz oscillating magnetic field. A sample of the yogurt is plated on
standard plates, and a count of the cultures reveals a concentration
of only about 25 Saccharomyces bacteria per cm3 of yogurt.
A prepackaged dough product... is thoroughly mixed with mold spores to
give a concentration of 3000 spores/cm3. The chopped rolls... was centered
in the above-described coil where it was subjected to l pulse of 7.5
Tesla, 8.5 kHz, oscillating magnetic field. A sample of the chopped
rolls is plated on standard plates, and a culture count shows a mold
spore concentration of only about 1 spore per cm3.
Editor's Notes on Patent 4,524,079
This device produces the same type of oscillating magnetic field as does
the OMF Pulser. The basic design of mine is the same, with a capacitor
(charged with high voltage) connected in parallel with a coil by an
electrically controlled switch (a xenon flash tube) to produce a decaying
oscillating magnetic field. This patents device varies from mine in
application only by the test product being placed inside the coil,
whereas mine is used so that the coil rests on the test subject which
is effected by the lines of magnetic force emanating from the coil
(see drawing below). Field force becomes less and less with more distance
from the center of the coil as is indicated by the dashed field force
lines separating more. The patents results of test example 1 is a 96%
reduction of bacteria (from 25,000 to 970). The patents results of
test example 2 is a 99.3% reduction of bacteria (from 3,500 to 25).
The results of test example 4 is a 99.9% reduction of fungi spores
(from 3000 to l).
U.S. Patent 4,665,898
Inventor: Jonathan L. Costa, Gunter A. Hofmann
Date: May 19, 1987
A body part of an animal afflicted with malignant cells is disposed within
a magnetic coil and subjected to a plurality of magnetic field pulses,
the pulses having intensities of between about l and about 100 Tesla
and characteristic frequencies of between about 5 and about 100 kHz.
The pulses magnetic field selectively inactivates and/or destroys malignant
cells with relatively little damage to normal tissue.
Summary of the Invention
... Herein, it is discovered that high intensity magnetic fields applied
in short pulses with moderate frequencies, can be used to selectively
destroy or otherwise inactivate malignant cells within tissue of a
living animal. Selective inactivation of malignant cells within animal
tissue subjected to a pulsed magnetic field is accomplished without
noticeable deterioration of gross characteristics of normal tissue.
Detailed Description of a Preferred Embodiment
It is found that subjecting body parts containing cancerous tissue to
a plurality of magnetic field pulses, with characteristic frequencies
above about 5 kHz and intensities above about 1 Tesla, will either
arrest the growth of tumors or progressively reduce the number of cancerous
cells, resulting in remission of tumors... The magnetic field in the
coil is produced upon discharge of a bank of capacitors. The capacitor
bank is charged from a source, and when a switch is closed... an oscillating
current can be generated between the plates of the capacitors. The
oscillating current, in turn, generates a pulsed magnetic field which
is concentrated within the region bounded by the coil... Immediately
subsequent to closing the switch, an intense magnetic field is produced
by current flowing in one direction. As the current changes direction,
the magnetic field changes polarity... The oscillating current and,
hence, the oscillating magnetic field rapidly decreases after about
ten oscillations dropping to a few percent of the original magnetic
field strength. Herein, magnetic field intensities refer to the intensities
of the initial peaks... The method is applicable to practically any
type of tissue and is believed applicable for treatment of most types
of malignancies... In each session, an animal is exposed to at least
1 and up to 1000 magnetic pulses. Generally a living animal would be
subjected to at least ten pulses at each therapy session and up to
one hundred pulses. An animal will be subjected to additional sessions
until tumor remission is achieved... Malignant cells are more susceptible
to destruction and/or inactivation by a pulsed intense electromagnetic
field because the field may create eddy currents that are unique to
the tumor. These localized eddy currents may cause effects that are
deleterious to the viability and/or reproductive capability of the
tumor cells. Alternatively, there may be macromolecules unique to malignant
cells which are especially magnetically susceptible... Furthermore,
treatment with a pulsed magnetic field does far less damage to the
natural immune system than does radiation treatment or chemotherapy.
Frequently, a patient who is treated extensively with ionizing radiation
and/or with chemotherapy will experience an almost complete breakdown
of the immune system. Subsequent to treatment, the immune system may
take up to a year to recover, particularly with respect to immunity
to viral infections. As a result, even if a patient is cured of the
malignancy by radiation and/or chemotherapy, he is subject to debilitating
disease or even death by infections to which his body would ordinarily
have built up immunity. With the magnetic treatment described herein,
here has been no evidence of major immune system beak-down.
Evaluation of the Growth of Rat Mammary Tumors Following Multiple Exposures
to a Rapidly Varying Magnetic Field
Field Partial or Complete Response
Strength/ Total Total Tumors
Tumor Frequency No. of Interruption Responding
Type Tesla/kHz Tumors of Growth Shrinkage No. in percent
DMBA 5T / 8kHz 8 2 6 8 100%
NMU 5T / 8kHz 10 1 9 10 100%
It can be seen from the above table that the method of the present invention
is useful for treating a variety of malignancies, although the response
varies according to the type of tumor. Accordingly, the method has general
applicability to malignancy treatment.
Twelve rats having primary DMBA-induced mammary carcinomas were treated
daily with a conventional Magneform machine. A primary mammary gland
carcinoma induced by a carcinogen, such as DMBA or NMU, is highly virulent,
as outlined in substantial detail in P. M. Guillino, et al., Journal
of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 54, no. 2, February 1974. It
is common for such a tumor in a rat to increase in size by about 10
to 30 fold in about 30 days, and if left untreated almost invariably
will ulcerate within about 45 days. Ten of the rats are treated daily
with 20 pulses at 5 Tesla and 8 KHz. Their tumor volumes on the 1st
and 30th days are listed in with table 3 below:
Test Tumor volume (cm3)
Rat Day 1 Day 30
1. 1.60 1.95
2. 1.20 3.65
3. 2.10 1.20
4. 1.40 3.81
5. .90 .42
6. 3.00 3.81
7. .38 .45
8. 2.10 8.18
9. 6.79 8.88
10. 1.10 .85
It can be seen from the above table that after thirty days the tumors were
either diminished in size, stabilized, or at least controlled relative to untreated
tumors... The remaining two rats were treated in an identical manner but at
1/4th the field intensity, i.e., 1.2 Tesla, 8 kHz, 20 pulses. One of these
died on day 58 while the tumor size of the other had decreased in size from
1.6 cm3 on day 1 to 1.4 cm3 on day 62. The rats generally appeared to exhibit
normal behavior and appetite and did not appear to lose weight. The fact that
the rats did not die of infections suggested that the immune systems functioned
Editor's Notes on Patent 4,665,898
This device produces the same type of oscillating magnetic field as does
my OMF Pulser. The basic design of mine is the same, with a capacitor
(charged with high voltage) connected in parallel with a coil by an electrically
controlled switch (a xenon flash tube) to produce a decaying oscillating
magnetic field. This patents device varies from mine in application only
by the test subject being placed inside the coil, whereas mine was used
so that the coil rests on the test subject which is effected by the lines
of magnetic force emanating from the coil (see drawing below). Field
force becomes less and less with more distance from the center of the
coil as is indicated by the field force lines separating more. The results
of test example 1 is a reduction of live cancer cells (in test tube)
of 32% of undifferentiated carcinoma and 29% of embryonic carcinoma after
18 days. This was after 8 pulses of oscillating magnetic field of 5 Tesla
at 8 kHz on day 1. The results of test example 2 is 75% and 90% of treated
rat mammary tumors (6 of 8 DMBA primary tumors, and 9 of 10 NMU primary
tumors) shrunken after 20 pulses daily of OMF at 5 Tesla and 8 kHz for
6 days. The results of test example 3 is an average 86% reduction of
tumor size after 30 days (compared to a typical 20 times tumor growth
after 30 days). Treatment was with 20 pulses OMF of 5 Tesla at 8 KHZ
daily for 30 days. Tumors were induced by injection of the DMBA chemical.
The table below has columns for the typical 20x size after 30 days and
the percent reduction of the treated tumors compared to the 20x size.
It also shows the equally positive lower intensity (1.2 Tesla) test results
on one tumor with a resultant 96% reduction.
Tumor Volume (cm3) .
typical size after 30 days percent
Rat Day 1 Day 30 if left untreated (x20 size) reduction
l. 1.60 1.95 32. 94%
2. 1.20 3.65 24. 85%
3. 2.10 l.20 42. 97%
4. 1.40 3.81 28. 86%
5. .90 .42 18. 98%
6. 3.00 3.81 60. 94%
7. .38 .45 7.6 94%
8. 2.10 8.18 42. 8l%
9. 6.79 8.88 13.6 35%
l0. 1.1 .85 22. 96%
treatment with 20 pulses of 1.2 Tesla at 8 kHz for 30 days
11. l.6 1.40 32. 96%
Select Quotes from Various Electromedicine Patents
Magnetic therapy device
The beneficial effects of applying a magnetic field to an area of animal
anatomy such as the back, legs, arms and the like, are widely known and
well documented. Magnetic fields are commonly used for therapeutic purposes
such as reduction of inflammation in tissues and pain relief. Magnetic
fields are known to improve the blood flow to tissues to which the magnetic
field is applied.
Electromagnetic-field therapy method and device
Pulsed [electromagnetic] field therapy produces a complex effect on the
living organism, because it contributes to an improvement in the energy
metabolism, increases the mobility of lymph, enhances the blood supply
of capillaries, and, as a consequence, improves nutrition of all tissues
of the organism. The pulse field therapy liquidates stagnation of energy
in tissues, whereby painful sensations are eliminated. The pulse therapy
improves ion exchange on the level of cells, regulates the intracellular
pressure, this contributing to normalization of the overall metabolism.
Pulsed electromagnetic energy treatment apparatus and method
Electrotherapy includes various means for applying an electric or electromagnetic
field to a wound area to facilitate growth and proliferation of new tissue,
i.e., healing. Application of external electrical and electromagnetic
fields is now an increasingly standard therapy for the treatment of non-union
bone fractures, but these devices have seen limited use in other areas
of healing. The present invention may also be utilized in other treatment
areas where increasing the rate of growth and proliferation of cells
is essential, including the treatment of burns and surgically implanted
skin or soft tissue grafts, rehabilitation medicine, post surgical repair,
and neuronal/brain/spinal injury repair and regeneration.
Flexible coil pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) stimulation therapy
PEMF therapy has been satisfactorily used in treating spinal fusion,
failed arthrodeses, osteonecrosis, and chronic refractory tendinitis,
decubitus ulcers and ligament, tendon injuries, osteoporosis, and Charcot
foot. During PEMF therapy, an electromagnetic transducer coil is generally
placed in the vicinity of the musculoskeletal injury (sometimes referred
to as the "target area") such that pulsing the transducer coil
will produce an applied or driving field that penetrates to the underlying
damaged bone or other body tissue.
ANTIOXIDANT EFFECTS OF ULTRA-LOW MICROCURRENTS
Alfred J. Koonin, M.B., Ch, B., Ph.D., FRCS
Exerpt from: http://www.eprtech.com/ANTIOXIDANT%20EFFECTS.htm
To see if these ultra-low currents could work as an antioxidant, the
model chosen was chronic skin wounds. The reason for this was that most
of these lesions are found in debilated patients with poor immune systems
who probably have a high concentration of free radicals. Further, the
wounds themselves are generally necrotic and infected with poor healing
potential again indicating a high concentration of free radicals in the
local area. The idea was to isolate the injured area as part of the circuit
and thereby infuse a steady stream of electrons through the area with
as little resistance as possible. The resistance would be reduced by
using a low level current and by increasing the diameter of the conductor.
Also, the frequency of the current would have to be low in order to prevent
the electrons from traveling in short bursts. A low frequency would allow
the electrons to move in a steady stream.
A device was used that produced a current range of 3mA down to .1mA.
The frequency used produced a cycle lasting approximately 23 minutes.
The device was designed to switch the direction of current flow half
way through the cycle. The device runs on a rechargeable battery producing
a square wave bipolar current with a Voltage ranging between 5V up to
a maximum of 40V. The Voltage range will vary proportionately with the
resistance in the tissues. The device will not function if the range
goes beyond 40 Volts. The electrodes are applied in two layers using
tap water as the conducting medium. Water is a very poor conductor of
electricity, but the minerals in tap water are sufficient to carry the
current into the tissues. Also, the wraps cover a large surface area
thus reducing resistance and allowing an optimum number of electrons
to flow freely into the tissues.
Patients were treated for approximately 3« hours per day, five
days a week until the lesion had healed. A twelve-week maximum was allowed
for healing to take place. All patients were in-patients and were on
wound care treatments for at least three months prior to this study,
with no observable improvement in their condition. The 25 patients treated
had lesions present for an average of 18.5 months.
For approximately 23 minutes per day the subjects were wrapped with spongy
bandages, soaked in water, above and below the wound to make the sites
readily receive the electric current later. Conductive silicone electrodes
were then wrapped over these areas and attached to the device with stud
clips. For the first cycle (23 minutes) the device was set at a current
output of 3 mA. For the subsequent eight cycles of treatment (approximately
three hours) the device was set at an output of .4mA. Twenty-five chronic
wounds were treated. These were present for a period ranging from 3 to
60 months and did not respond to standard therapy. Ages of the patients
in the study varied from 20 to 85 years old. Twenty-three of the lesions
were stage III or IV. 92 % of the lesions were stages III or IV. The
age of the lesions varied from 6 to 60 months with an average of 18.5
months. 100% of the lesions healed in an average of 48 hours of treatment,
i.e. an average of 16 days.
Electric current helps diabetic foot ulcers heal
NEW YORK, Jul 11 2001 (Reuters Health) - A device that delivers high-voltage
electric stimulation to the skin can help diabetic foot ulcers heal,
preliminary study findings suggest.
People with diabetes may develop foot ulcers as a result of poor circulation
and a reduced ability to fight infection. Usually, ulcers are treated
by cleaning and dressing the wound to keep it moist and resting the affected
limb, but in some cases, damage can be severe enough to require amputation.
According to a report in the June issue of the Archives of Physical Medicine
and Rehabilitation, patients who used an electric stimulation device
in addition to standard treatment were more likely to heal.
The study of 35 diabetic patients compared high-voltage, pulsed galvanic
electric stimulation every night for 8 hours with an inactive placebo
treatment that felt the same but delivered no current. Patients also
underwent weekly removal of dead tissue, topical treatment and rest.
Over 3 months, 65% of patients who received electric stimulation healed,
compared with 35% of patients in the placebo group.
It is not clear how electric stimulation aids in wound healing, but the
researchers suggest that it may enhance blood flow and immune system
It's not a silver bullet," study author Dr. Lawrence A. Lavery of
the University of Texas Health Sciences Center in San Antonio, told Reuters
Health, noting that the device should be used in combination with other
measures. However, he added, "it is more promising than some pharmaceuticals
that I've seen."
There was no difference in the amount of time it took for wounds to heal
among groups, the study found.
Still, "the results of this study are quite promising and compare
favorably with several recent reports in the medical literature on wound
healing in persons with diabetes mellitus," Lavery and colleagues
They add that larger trials should be conducted to further investigate
whether electric stimulation can help diabetic foot ulcers to heal.
SOURCE: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2001;82:721-724.